The Edroos


The Edroos

The 'Edroos' or 'El-Edroos', 'Al-Edroos' or 'Al-Aidroos' (Arabic: العيدرس) are of of Arab Hadhrami descent. Their lineage comes from the a Ba'Alawi Sayyed ('Saiyed' or 'Saiyyed') of the Bani Hashim (or 'Banu Hashem') meaning they belong to a Hashemite family that are direct descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

History of the Hadhrami people

The Hadhrami (Arabic: حضرمي, romanized: ḥaḍramī, singular) or Hadharem (Arabic: حضارم, romanized: ḥaḍāram, plural) are an Arab ethnic group indigenous to the Hadhramaut region in South Arabia around Eastern Yemen, western Oman, and southern Saudi Arabia and their descendants in diaspora communities around the world. They speak Hadhrami Arabic, an Arabic dialect with heavy influence from the extinct South Semitic Hadramautic language. Among the two million inhabitants of Hadhramaut, there are about 1,300 distinct tribes. The Hadharem have a long seafaring and trading tradition that predates Semitic cultures, the Semitic Hadramites diaspora was historically the Mofarite & Gurage mercantile Semitic pioneers in East Africa, Hadramite influence was later over shadowed by the rise of the temple of the Moon governing Sabaean Semites that saw the concentration of power switch to a governing ruling class. With Governing pressure in the South Semitic regions Hadhrami seamen navigated in large numbers all around the Indian Ocean basin, from the some part around the Horn of Africa, to the Swahili Coast to the Malabar Coast and Hyderabad in South India, Sri Lanka to Maritime Southeast Asia. They were involved in many places as organizers of the Haj.

There are Hadharem communities in western Yemen and in the trading ports of the Arab States of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. The money changers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia have usually been of Hadhrami origin.

Language

The Hadhrami speak Hadhrami Arabic, a variety of Arabic, while the Diasporas that have acculturated mainly speak the local language they live in.

Hadhrami East Africans

The Hadhrami have long had a notable presence in the African Horn region (Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia). Descendants of Hadhramis make up a notable part of the Harari population. Hadhrami settlers were instrumental in helping to consolidate the Muslim community in the coastal Benadir province of Somalia, in particular. During the colonial period, disgruntled Hadhrami from the tribal wars additionally settled in various Somali towns. They were also frequently recruited into the armies of the Somali Sultanates. Some Hadhrami communities also reportedly exist in Mozambique, Comoros, and Madagascar.

Hadhrami Jews

The vast majority of the Hadhrami Jews now live in Israel.

Hadhrami in India (Chaush)

The Chaush are Muslim community of Hadhrami Arab descent found in the Deccan region of India. The name is believed to originate from the Turkish word Chiaus used during the Ottoman era of the Balkans for military officers who were often tasked with guarding palaces. They have a common origin with the Chavuse community of Gujarat.

The Chaush were brought from Yemen to work in the former Hyderabad State as military men and body guards for the Nizams. It is said that especially when it came to safe guarding his family, the 7th Nizam had absolute trust on these Arab bodyguards. They are most concentrated in the neighbourhood of Barkas in Hyderabad city. Many Chaush later settled in other parts of India, and around the world as part of the Hyderabadi diaspora, especially in Pakistan, and Arab states of the Persian Gulf.

The founders of both the Qu'aiti and Kathiri states in Hadhramawt had previously served as jemadars in Hyderabad.

Cultural Contributions

Among the best known cultural contributions of the Chaush to India are Marfa music and dance, and Hyderabadi haleem, both which are culturally important to the Hyderabadi Muslim people, and seen at almost all wedding ceremonies.

Historical Role of the Edroos in India

Syed Ahmed El Edroos

Syed Ahmed El-Edroos (Arabic: سيد أحمد العيدرس, romanized: Saiyid Aḥmad al-‘aidarūs) was the commander-in-chief of the Hyderabad State Forces at the time of the annexation of Hyderabad State by India in 1948. El-Edroos was a close confidante and trusted aide of the Nizam of Hyderabad. His brothers were also senior officers and distinguished members of the Nizam's army.

In September 1948 El-Edroos held the rank of Major-General and Commander of the State Army of Hyderabad. This numbered 6,000 men and consisted of three armored regiments, a horse cavalry regiment, 11 infantry battalions and artillery. It was supported by 18,000 poorly armed and trained irregulars. In the course of Operation Polo the Indian Army was able to scatter this mixed force in five days of fighting. General El-Edroos, who had advised the Nizam against opposing the entry of Indian forces, surrendered on 17 September.

His autobiography Hyderabad of the Seven Loaves was published in April 1994 and presented a historical account of the Asaf Jahi dynasty with an autobiographical sketch of the author, covering the events of Hyderabad's merger with the Indian Union. It narrates several anecdotes and facts about the city during the Nizami reign. The book also contains some rare pictures of the royal and aristocratic events that took place at the time.